Types of


Contain only one primary nutrient (N, P, or K)

Targeted nutrient correction
Useful for addressing specific deficiencies
Requires precise application to avoid imbalances

Single Nutrient



Contain a balanced mix of NPK plus additional nutrients

Comprehensive nutrient supply
Convenient for overall plant health
Reduces the need for multiple fertilization products.

Derived from natural sources like compost and manure

Enhance soil health and structure
Release nutrients gradually
Environmentally friendly




Chemically manufactured for precise nutrient content

Quick nutrient availability
Customizable formulations
High nutrient concentration.

Nourish plants gradually over an extended period

Quick nutrient availability
Customizable formulations
High nutrient concentration.

Slow Release


Quick Release

Provide rapid nutrient availability to plants

Fast-acting for immediate results
Convenient for addressing nutrient deficiencies
Requires careful application to avoid overuse

Solid, granulated form for slow and controlled release

Uniform nutrient distribution
Long-lasting effect
Suitable for various soil types




Formulated in liquid form for easy application

Quick absorption by plant roots
Ideal for foliar feeding
Requires frequent application


Application methods


Even spreading of fertilizer over the soil surface

Uniform nutrient distribution
Suitable for large areas
Require more fertilizer


Concentrated application in bands along rows or plant beds

Targeted nutrient delivery to plant roots
Reduces fertilizer use, minimizing waste
Ideal for row crops and precision farming

Foliar spraying

Application of fertilizer directly to plant leaves

Rapid nutrient absorption through leaf surfaces
Effective for addressing nutrient deficiencies
Requires careful timing to avoid leaf burn


Fertilizer mixed with irrigation water delivered directly to plant roots

Precise nutrient delivery to root zones
Water-efficient and reduces nutrient runoff
Requires specialized equipment

Soil Injection

Fertilizer injected directly into the soil

Targets the root zone for efficient nutrient uptake
Minimizes nutrient loss to the environment
Suitable for established plants and trees


Application of fertilizer on the soil surface around plants

Additional nutrient supply during the growing season
Minimizes soil disturbance
Effective for established crops



Enhancing Agricultural Efficiency and Sustainability
Fertiliser technology represents a pivotal advancement in modern agriculture, revolutionizing the way we nourish crops and optimize yields.

Metric Tonnes

Fertilisers used/hectare of arable land in Malaysia in 2021

(Source: World Bank collection of development indicators)

Billion (RM)

Sales of manufactured fertilisers in Malaysia in 2022

(Source: World Bank collection of development indicators)

Technology Description Key Characteristics
Controlled-Release Technology Granules coated to release nutrients gradually over time. Extended nutrient availability
Reduces the risk of over-fertilization
Ideal for sustained plant growth with fewer applications.
Precision Agriculture Technology Use of GPS and sensors for precise fertilizer application. Targeted nutrient delivery based on soil and crop conditions
Optimizes fertilizer use efficiency
Reduces environmental impact
Smart Fertilizers Incorporate technologies like sensors and microprocessors. Monitor soil conditions in real-time
Release nutrients based on plant needs
Enhances nutrient use efficiency.
Nano-fertilizers Fertilizer particles at the nanoscale for improved nutrient absorption. Increased nutrient uptake by plants
Reduces nutrient leaching and environmental impact
Requires careful application due to concentrated nature.
Effective Microorganism Fertilizers Utilize living microorganisms to enhance nutrient availability. Improve soil structure and microbial activity
Provide a sustainable approach to fertilization
Enhances plant resilience to diseases.
Variable Rate Fertilizer Spreaders Mechanized equipment for precise and efficient fertilizer application. Ensures uniform coverage
Reduces labor and time for large-scale operations
Can be integrated with precision agriculture technologies.

The Triple Threat of

Nitrogen Fertilizers

Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, contribute to climate change in three key ways.


Microbes in the soil convert nitrogen fertilizer into nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas that also damages the ozone layer.


Rain and irrigation runoff can wash nutrients from fertilizer and livestock manure into waterways, where they feed algae blooms that produce methane (CH4), another greenhouse gas.


Manufacturing nitrogen fertilizer is energy-intensive. It uses natural gas or other hydrocarbons and releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in the process.